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Pest Control

2011 Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide

Pest management recommendations provide up-to-date information on pesticides and their applicability to your problem. We suggest that you use this information to set up your own spray program. You should include space for records in the program, such as materials used; date of application; stage of growth; and weather. In case of questions, nothing beats a good set of records, and records are required for restricted-use pesticides.

  • Apple Spray Schedule
  • Efficacy of Selected Insecticides and Acaricides Against Apple Insects and Mites
  • Special Problems and Pests of Apple
  • Pear Spray Schedule
  • Cherry Spray Schedule
  • Peach Spray Schedule
  • Plum Spray Schedule
  • Special Problems and Pests of Peach and Other Stone Fruit
  • Insecticides Used to Manage Borers of Peach, Cherry, and Plum Trees
  • Pre-harvest Intervals and Restricted Entry Intervals (REI) for Common Fungicides
  • Efficacy of Selected Fungicides Against Apple Diseases
  • Efficacy of Selected Fungicides Against Stone Fruit
  • Pre-harvest Intervals and Restricted Entry Intervals (REI) for Insecticides and Miticides
  • Pre-harvest Intervals and Restricted Entry Intervals (REI) for Herbicides
  • Generic Insecticides
  • Orchard Vole Control
  • Suggestions for Growth Regulators
  • Chemical Thinning of Apples
  • Chemical Weed Control
  • Herbicide Recommendations for Apple and Pear
  • Herbicide Recommendations for Peach, Nectarine, Plum and Cherry
  • Herbicide Recommendations for Non-Bearing Fruit Trees Only
  • Floral Development Stages for Fruit Crops
  • Record Keeping Requirements for Production Chemicals
  • Record Keeping Forms
University of Illinois Extension
Purdue Extension
Iowa State University Extension
Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service
University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service
University of Missouri
Missouri State University
Ohio State University Extension
University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service
Midwest Fruit Workers Group
Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production


In New York State, a large number of both native and introduced insect and mite species attack apples grown in commercial apple orchards. Control of this pest complex is particularly challenging, because unlike the more arid apple production regions on the West Coast, apple orchards in N.Y. are commonly in close proximity to semi-wooded areas having an abundance of wild apple and hawthorn species that can harbor fairly large populations of certain apple insect pests. Traditionally, conventional apple orchards in N.Y. have been treated heavily with insecticides and acaricides to control this extensive complex of arthropod pests.

Objectives of this research:

  1. To evaluate the efficacy of individual tactics, including multi-species pheromone disruption, kaolin particle film applications, a Bacillus thuringiensis plus horticultural mineral oil spray 2 program, and whole-tree exclusion cages, in preventing insect pest damage to organically produced apples.
  2. To compare the effect of different whole-tree exclusion cage materials on fruit color of 'Taylor Rome' apples.
A. Agnello
H. Reissig
D. Combs
Cornell University
Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Control of Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae) on Harvested Table Grapes


The spider Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie (Araneae: Theridiidae) was subjected to low and ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments at different temperatures. Complete control of the spiders was achieved in 24-h ULO treatments with 0.5% O2 or lower at 1°C and in a 24-h low oxygen (2%) treatment at 15°C. Oxygen level and temperature greatly affected spider mortality. At 1°C, as oxygen level was decreased from 2 to 0.5%, spider mortality increased from 0 to 100%. At 2% O2, as temperature was increased from 1 to 15°C, spider mortality increased from 0 to 100%. Grape clusters from two table grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars, "Thompson Seedless" and "Flame Seedless", were subjected to the 24-h ULO treatment with 0.5% O2 at 1°C. The ULO treatment had no negative effects on grape quality. Because of the relatively short treatment time, effectiveness at low storage temperature and the easily attained oxygen level, we conclude that the ULO treatment have good potential to be implemented commercially for control of black widow spiders on harvested table grapes.

Yong-Biao Liu
Kent M. Daane
J. Steve Tebbets
Larry J. Bettiga
Journal of Economic Entomology
Key Features of Common Lygus Species in the Central San Joaquin Valley

Correct identification of captured Lygus bugs and similar-looking insects is a key to accurate research and pest control. This identification key and its companion publication (A Field Key to the Most Common Lygus Species Found in Agronomic Crops of the Central San Joaquin Valley of California) give point-by-point instructions.

Shannon C. Mueller
Charles G. Summers
Peter B. Goodell
University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources
A Field Key to the Most Common Lygus Species Found in Agronomic Crops of the Central San Joaquin Valley of California


This key can be used to distinguish between three species of Lygus reportedly found in agronomic crops in Central Joaquin Valley of California. Lygus hesperus Knight (western tarnished plant bug) is the predominant species found, while Lygus elisus Van Duzee (pale legume bug) is observed less frequently. Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois (tarnished plant bug) has been reported from the Central San Joaquin Valley, but is rarely found in field crops. Being able to correctly identify the various Lygus species may improve interpretation of research results or enhance research progress in areas such as biological control and assessment of economic damage. Studies of overwintering habitat and intercrop movement will also be facilitated.

Shannon C. Mueller
Charles G. Summers
Peter B. Goodell
University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources
Insect Management for Onions, Leek, and Garlic

Sweet varieties of bulbing onions, which make bulbs under short day conditions and do not store well, are by far the most common onions grown in Florida. They are generally grown on small acreages in the winter for local and farmers markets. In Hillsborough County and in the Suwannee Valley, strawberry growers are the major producers of onions, many of which are harvested green.
Because it is grown in the winter and early spring, the onion crop in Florida suffers from relatively few insect pests, with thrips and seedcorn maggot being the most commonly found. Armyworms and cutworms can occasionally damage seedlings. Cultural controls, such as growing thrips-tolerant varieties and preparing seedbeds early, should be used and insecticides avoided as much as possible to limit the development of insecticide resistance and favor the survival of insect predators and parasites.

S. E. Webb
University of Florida, IFAS Extension
Biopreparados para el manejo sostenible de plagas y enfermedades en la agricultura urbana y periurbana


La Guía “Biopreparados para el manejo sostenible de plagas y enfermedades en la agricultura urbana y periurbana” se centra en el uso de una gran diversidad de bioestimulantes / enraizadores, biofungicidas, bioinsecticidas, biorepelentes / biofertilizantes elaborados con ingredientes sencillos y de bajo costo para los agricultores y sus familias. Incluye a 34 biopreparados probados en huertos y predios urbanos y periurbanos de ciudades de la Región, que fueron aportados en forma generosa por las instituciones de apoyo y los agricultores urbanos que respondieron a la Convocatoria Regional organizada por IPES y FAO-RLC.

Raúl Terrile
Juan Izquierdo
Tania Santivañez
Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Grape Benchgrafts

Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25°C and 4-d ULO treatment at 15°C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25°C and 4 d at 15°C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

Yong-Biao Liu
Larry J. Bettiga
Kent M. Daane
Journal of Economic Entomology
Bean Leaf Beetle - Snap Beans


The bean leaf beetle (BLB), Cerotoma trifurcata, is an occasional pest of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) throughout the eastern U.S. and in recent years, in the upper Midwest production regions of southern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Recent outbreaks since 2000 have been attributed to milder winters or adequate snow cover to insulate overwintering adult populations. Other hosts include soybeans (Glycine max), peas (Pisum sativum), clover (Trifolium spp.), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), dry edible beans (P. vulgaris), and several leguminous weeds.

K. Van Wychen Bennett
W.D. Hutchison
E.C. Burkness
R.L. Koch
B. Potter
University of Minnesota
Control de Tuta absoluta mediante medidas culturales


La polilla del tomate, Tuta absoluta, está definitivamente establecida como una plaga importante en el cultivo del tomate en Almería. No obstante, en los invernaderos parece una plaga manejable, gracias a las medidas que puede tomar el agricultor para su control. Puesto que Tuta absoluta es una especie propensa a desarrollar resistencias contra insecticidas, estas medidas pasan por prevenir la dispersión de la plaga entre los cultivos y por el control biológico.

El presente proyecto estaba dirigido a optimizar el uso de trampas de feromonas y de luz y al efecto de la solarización del suelo al final del cultivo. No obstante, casi de forma accidental, por primera vez se ha podido documentar que un grave ataque por Tuta absoluta en tomate fue controlado por parasitoides autóctonos. Esta observación es esperanzadora, mostrando la respuesta ecológica a la aparición de esta plaga invasora que hizo su entrada en Europa de forma tan devastadora.


  • Resumen del proyecto
  • Estado de la plaga en Almería
  • Plantas huésped de Tuta absoluta
  • Eficacia de diferentes tipos de trampas de captura masiva:
  • trampas de feromona y trampas de luz
  • Trampas de feromonas
  • Trampas de luz
  • Efecto de la solarización sobre Tuta absoluta
  • Control biológico
Jan van der Blom
Antonio Robledo
Sonia Torres
Fundación Cajamar
Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Effects of pre-treatment storage on lettuce quality

Iceberg lettuce stored under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for 1 week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2 d ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 0.003% oxygen at 10 ◦C for control of western flower thrips. Lettuce which had been stored for 1 week under normal or CA tolerated ULO treatment while over 30% of fresh lettuce sustained minor injury to heartleaves. Therefore, pre-treatment storage at low temperature enhanced tolerance of lettuce to the subsequent insecticidal ULO treatment. A sequential combination of CA storage and ULO treatment was demonstrated to be effective against western flower thrips and lettuce aphid and safe to all seven lettuce cultivars tested. The study indicated that ULO treatment can be made safer to lettuce through pre-treatment storage to increase lettuce tolerance.

Yong-Biao Liu
Postharvest Biology and Technology
Guía de identificación de plagas que afectan a la papa en la zona andina


El presente documento elaborado por el Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP) hace una recopilación actualizada de las plagas y enfermedades más importantes del cultivo de la papa en los Andes y se constituye en una herramienta integral y flexible para capacitadores y extensionistas con información que el productor necesita conocer para el control y prevención de la diseminación de las diferentes plagas y enfermedades.

Un valor a resaltar de este documento es su redacción en lenguaje sencillo y abundantes imágenes, que serán de mucha utilidad en las Escuelas de Campo de Agricultores (ECAs). Estas características responden a la necesidad de poner a disposición de capacitadores la información técnica para mejorar la competitividad de la agricultura familiar campesina andina.

Finalmente, la presente Guía por su contenido, estructura y diseño abre la posibilidad de generar material complementario de capacitación, como fichas técnicas, afiches y material audiovisual entre otros. Por lo tanto, estamos seguros de la gran contribución y utilidad de la “Guía de Identificación de de Plagas que afectan a la papa en la zona Andina”.

W. Pérez
G. Forbes
Centro Internacional de la Papa
Effect of Elevation and Host Availability on Distribution of Sterile and Wild Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Effects of elevation and host fruit availability on the distribution of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were evaluated with cylindrical traps baited with a female-biased food-based synthetic lure. Tests were conducted in the Santa Mara valley, Guatemala during a sterile male release program. Traps were placed in or near host trees (primarily coffee and citrus) and in non-host trees when no hosts were available. Trap locations were grouped according to elevation every 170 m. Elevation group midpoints were 1103, 1273, 1443, and 1613 m above sea level. The spatial distributions of sterile males, wild males, and females were clumped throughout the 13 wk of sampling. More wild female flies were captured in coffee in the 1273 m elevation and on non-host trees in the 1103 m elevation. The number of wild males was directly related to the number of wild females captured, and the sex ratio (female: male) was highest at the 1443 and 1613 m elevation ranges. There was no relationship between the number of sterile males and number of wild females in the traps at any elevation. At all elevation ranges, an inverse relationship was observed between the numbers of wild females and males with the mean numbers of sterile males per trap. Wild C. capitata populations appeared to decrease when 40 sterile males were captured per trap with wild females per week. The results indicated that, during the sampling period evaluated, coffee appeared to be the main host plant for the wild population, C. capitata were more abundant at the 1273 m elevation range than at other elevations. Additional or alternative host species may harbor the female population at other times.

Helena Puche
David G. Midgarden
Oscar Ovalle
Paul E. Kendra
Nancy D. Epsky
Pedro Rend
Florida Entomologist
Midwest Commercial Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide


Commercial fruit production has become a highly skilled, technical profession. Concerns about pesticide residues, operator risks, and the environment dictate that all fruit growers exercise extreme caution in the use of all pesticides, and indeed, all chemicals. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated a number of fruit pesticides as “restricted use.” Growers who plan to use these restricted materials must be certified as private applicators. Certification requires that applicators understand the following: labels and labeling, safety factors, potential environmental concerns, identification of common pests encountered, pesticides and their use, proper equipment use, application techniques, and applicable state and federal regulations. Training programs are offered to help you in certification. Contact your county Extension office for information.

The pest management recommendations in this guide have been formulated to provide you up-todate information on pesticides and their applicability to your problem. It is suggested that you use this information to set up your own spray program. You should keep accurate records of materials used, dates of application, areas treated, stages of growth, and weather conditions. Pages 71 to 74 of this guide contain sample record sheets. In case of questions, nothing beats a good set of records. Records are required by EPA for Restricted Use Pesticide applications. Some states may require records for general use pesticides (e.g., Kentucky has this requirement).

Bruce Bordelon
Mike Ellis
Celeste Welty
Midwest Fruit Workers Group
Evaluation of Organic Pest Controls and Fruit Thinning on Multiple Apple Cultivars


Disease and insect control strategies suitable for organic farmers were evaluated in an apple variety block that contained 15 different cultivars. The organic treatments were compared to similar sets of trees that received either standard pest management treatments or were left unsprayed. Effectiveness of pest control programs and their impact on productivity was evaluated for 33 different parameters on each of the 15 cultivars. Due to the high insect and disease pressure in this orchard, neither the standard nor the organic treatments provided commercially acceptable levels of pest control. Insect damage was found on 41 to 53% of fruit at harvest, but the organic and standard programs were comparable for most of the insect pests evaluated. However, the standard program was more effective for controlling black rot, bitter rot, and lenticel spotting caused by Botryosphaeria species. Pesticides plus application costs totaled $650/A for the standard program as compared to $1,173/A for the organic program. Total yield per acre (including fruit damaged by pests) was 209, 409, and 861 bushels per acre for the unsprayed, organic, and standard treatments, respectively. Pest control costs per bushel were $2.98 for fruit from the organic block compared to $0.76 for the standard. Results from this trial show that pest-free apples can be produced organically in New York, but organic producers will likely need at least a 400% sales premium compared to standard growers due to the high costs and reduced yield associated with organic pest control. Further research may lead to cost reductions and improved productivity for organic systems, but farmers currently considering a switch to organic apple production should verify that their prospective produce buyers will be willing to pay a significant premium for organic fruit.

David Rosenberger
Peter Jentsch
Cornell Cooperative Extension
Scouting vegetables for pests


The cornerstone of any Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program is regular scouting of the crop at hand. It’s important that the scouting or monitoring practices are done systematically and at regular intervals. In order for a scouting program to be effective, you must be familiar with what the crop should look like, which can be tricky in the case of some unusual cultivars of vegetables. You also must know the key pests of each crop. This publication will help you know what insects and diseases to look for on each particular crop family, when they are likely to be a problem, how you can monitor their population levels, and at what threshold levels you should consider controlling the population to prevent crop loss. See the publications referenced throughout this report for pest descriptions, biology and specific controls.

Karen Delahaut
University of Wisconsin-Madison College of Agricultural and Life Sciences
Biología, manejo y control de chanchitos blancos


La familia Pseudococcidae es la segunda más numerosa de los coccídeos, una de las 20 familias, aproximadamente, que pertenecen a la superfamilia Coccoidea. Corresponde a los insectos conocidos como chanchitos blancos o cochinillas harinosas.


  • Biologia y comportamiento de chanchitos blancos (Pseudococcus spp.).
  • Monitoreo de chanchitos blancos (Pseudococcus spp.).
  • Control biologico del chanchito blanco de la vid con parasitoides y depredadores (Pseudoccus viburni).
  • Control biologico del chanchitos blancos con hongos entomopatogenos.
  • Manejo del chanchito blanco de la vid en vides (Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret).
Ana Salazar P.
Marcos Gerding P.
Paola Luppichini B.
Renato Ripa S.
Patricia Larraín S.
Tania Zaviezo P.
Pilar Larral D.
INIA Chile
Efectividad de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) en aplicaciones dirigidas y en forma espontánea en la represión eficiente y sostenida de Prodiplosis longifila Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), en La Libertad, Perú


El control de las plagas agrícolas con hongos entomopatógenos es una estrategia viable, que se ha generalizado en el ámbito mundial y dentro de este grupo la especie Beauveria bassiana (Bals.), hongo imperfecto de la subdivisión Deuteromycotina, clase Hyphomycetes, se caracteriza por la formación de un micelio septado con producción de conidias de aproximadamente 0 , 5 - 0 , 8 µ de diámetro, o formas de reproducción asexual, en conidióforos que nacen a partir de hifas ramificadas. El ciclo biológico de B. bassiana comprende dos fases (patogénica y saprofita). La patogénica ocurre cuando el hongo entra en contacto con el tejido vivo del hospedero y la humedad en el microclima es de 85 % o más. El proceso infectivo que lleva al insecto atacado por el hongo a morir se cumple en tres etapas; la primera es la germinación de esporas y penetración de hifas al cuerpo del hospedador, que dura 3 - 4 días; la segunda, corresponde a la invasión de tejidos por el micelio del hongo hasta producir la muerte del insecto, en un periodo 2 - 3 días, y la tercera comprende la esporulación y el inicio de un nuevo ciclo donde el micelio del hongo se observa primero en las articulaciones y partes blandas de los insectos, y en días posteriores cubre todo el cuerpo. Después de la muerte del insecto y bajo condiciones de humedad relativa alta, las conidiosporas pueden extenderse a través del cuerpo, cubriéndolo con material fungoso característico.

Luis Liceras-Zárate
Hernán Escuadra-Vergaray
Revista Peruana de Entomología
Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce I. Effects of temperature, time, and oxygen level on insect mortality and lettuce quality

Ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments with different oxygen levels, treatment times, and temperatures were studied to determine effects on western flower thrips mortality and postharvest quality of iceberg lettuce. Thrips mortality increased with reduced oxygen level and increased treatment time and temperature. At 0.003% oxygen, over 99.6% mortality rates of thrips were achieved in three ULO treatments of 2, 3, and 4 d at 10, 5, and 1 °C, respectively. No treatments caused injury to lettuce surface leaves and there was no reduction in visual quality for treated lettuce. However, about 9–33% of lettuce heads sustained injury to heartleaves. The 2 d ULO treatment with 0.003% oxygen had the lowest injury rate to heartleaves and the injury increased with increased treatment duration. The amount of injured leaves was small (<2 g per head). There were also some variations among the lettuce cultivars in susceptibility to heartleaf injury by ULO treatments. Four out of eight cultivars tested tolerated the 2 d ULO treatment at 10 °C without any injury. Therefore, ULO treatment has potential to be developed as an alternative postharvest treatment for western flower thrips on iceberg lettuce.

Yong-Biao Liu
Postharvest Biology and Technology
Cómo desechar un pesticida


Todos los que utilizan pesticidas tienen la responsabilidad de desechar los residuos de pesticidas adecuadamente; como son los químicos no usados y los envases de pesticidas. Los residuos que no son desechados correctamente pueden representar riesgos serios para humanos, animales, y el medio ambiente. La reducción de desechos de pesticidas requiere de la selección cuidadosa del pesticida correcto, la cantidad correcta, así como el cálculo cuidadoso de la cantidad de pesticida que se necesita para cada aplicación.