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Food Safety

Guía de Buenas Prácticas Apícolas y de Manufactura


Esta publicación ha sido elaborada y actualizada para difundir las Buenas Prácticas de Apícolas y de Manufactura en la producción de miel, apuntando a la obtención de un producto inocuo, saludable y sano para el consumo humano, acorde con los estándares actuales de calidad. Estas recomendaciones pretenden ser una Guía que de rápida respuestas a las preguntas que con mayor frecuencia se realizan los productores.
Se trata de una revisión y actualización del Manual realizado originalmente en el año 1998, respetando la autoría y los conceptos vertidos en la misma. La intención de los autores ha sido la de generar una guía de fácil lectura, ágil en sus conceptos y de rápida comprensión.
La aplicación adecuada de esta forma de trabajo y de organización permitirá que todos los integrantes del sector apícola se articulen de acuerdo a normas que rigen tanto en el mercado nacional como en el internacional. Individualmente considerados, mejorarán su producción y sus posibilidades económicas, pero analizados como conjunto, harán que la apicultura argentina incremente sus ventajas competitivas, que ya la han convertido en potencia exportadora.

María Laura Etcheverry
Mercedes Nimo
Andrea Janin
Gabriel Pons
Susana Fattori
Claudio Marconi
Isabel Tiscornia
Néstor Malacalza
Mauricio Rabinovich
Julio Di Giovanni
Carlos Tapia
Paula Feldman
Graciela Rodríguez
Martín Testani
Pablo Izcovich
Germán Balbarrey
Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Alimentos - Argentina
2,004
Guía para la aplicación de buenas prácticas de manufactura en yerba mate


Durante el proceso de industrialización para producir yerba mate molida y envasada, se generan varios productos intermedios: “hoja verde”, es la yerba mate cosechada destinada al secado, “yerba mate canchada”, es el resultado de varios procesos de secado y es la materia prima de la molienda; “yerba mate molida”, es el producto de los procesos de molienda, puede comercializarse en bolsas de 40 o 50 kg o bien envasada en paquetes de un cuarto, medio, uno y dos kilos, constituyendo el producto final.
El actual desafío de ingresar y permanecer en mercados globalizados requiere de la adecuación del sector yerbatero argentino a exigencias internacionales. Esto es posible mediante la adopción de las Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas (BPA) y Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura (BPM), siendo las primeras medidas higiénico-sanitarias mínimas que se deben considerar en el campo y las segundas en la elaboración de un alimento para asegurar su inocuidad.

Sergio Prat Kricun
Luis de Bernardi
Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca. Argentina
2,006
Guía para la aplicación de buenas prácticas de manufactura en bodegas


Las buenas prácticas de manufactura (BPM) constituyen una herramienta inicial básica para lograr productos alimenticios inocuos y de calidad. Herramientas que, por lo general, se incluyen en el cuerpo legal de los Estados. En tal sentido, en la Argentina el Código Alimentario Argentino establece, en su capítulo II, la obligación de aplicar las BPM en la elaboración de alimentos. Del mismo modo, la Resolución 80/1996 del MERCOSUR indica la aplicación de las BPM para los alimentos que se comercializan en este mercado regional.
Uno de los aspectos de importancia en la adecuada aplicación de las BPM a la elaboración de vinos lo constituye la capacitación y concientización del personal vinculado con los procesos y operaciones pertinentes, los que podrían ser afectados si no se los capacitara e informara en forma adecuada.
Una herramienta útil para gestionar eficientemente los recursos humanos y materiales vinculados con la inocuidad y la calidad de los vinos que se elaboran, y evaluar su desempeño, la constituye la aplicación práctica de los cuestionarios orientativos, según se menciona a continuación. Detalles más finos pueden consultarse en las referencias bibliográficas al final de esta publicación.
Contenido:
Parte 1: Guía para la aplicación de buenas prácticas de manufactura en bodegas
Parte 2: Guía para la aplicación de análisis de peligros y puntos críticos de control en bodega (Norma IRAM 14104:2001)

Natalia Bonvini
Diego Grillo Trubba
Martín Cavagnaro
Alejandro Marianetti
Raúl Millán
Romina Garay
Juan Carlos Troiano
Alimentos Argentinos
2,005
Guía de aplicación de Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura: Extracción de Aceite de Oliva


Esta Guía de Implementación de Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura, brinda colaboración al productor para que, implementándolas, logre mejorar la calidad de su producto y con ella su valoración en el mercado nacional e internacional.
Contenido:

  • Especificaciones técnicas
  • Emplazamiento de la planta de extracción
  • Materias primas
    • El aceituna
    • Cosecha y recepción
    • Transporte y conservación de la aceituna
    • Recepción
  • Procesamiento de la aceituna
    • Higiene y seguridad
    • Molienda
    • Amasado o batido de la masa (pasta)
    • Extracción de aceite
      • Sistema de extracción por presión
      • Sistema de extracción por decanter (centrífuga vertical)
    • Separación del aceite del resto de los componentes del mosto oleoso
    • Almacenamiento
    • Manejo de los residuos
    • Limpieza y desinfección
    • Programa de control de plagas
José Luis Marginet Campos
Florencia Mabel Rembado
Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca, Argentina
2,002
Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: Present Status and Future Concerns


Disease outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff are a recurring problem worldwide. The major factor contributing to contamination are microorganisms, especially fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight compounds as secondary metabolites, with confirmed toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Several mycotoxins reported to date are cosmopolitan in distribution and incur severe health-associated risks (including cancer and neurological disorders). Hence, creating awareness among consumers, as well as developing new methods for detection and inactivation is of great importance for food safety. In this review, the focus is on the occurrence of various types of mycotoxins in food and feed associated with risks to humans and livestock, as well as legislation put forth by various authorities, and on presently practiced detoxification methods. Brief descriptions on recent developments in mycotoxin detection methodology are also inlcuded. This review is meant to be informative not only for health-conscious consumers but also for experts in the field to pave the way for future research to fill the existing gaps in our knowledge with regard to mycotoxins and food safety.

Rajeev Bhat
Ravishankar V. Rai
A.A. Karim
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
2,010
Sistemas de gestión de calidad en el sector agroalimentario


 
Contenido:

  • Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura (BPM)
    • Generalidades
    • Guía para la aplicación de las BPM
    • Primer Bloque – Contaminación por personal
    • Segundo Bloque – Contaminación por error de manipulación
    • Tercer Bloque – Precauciones en las instalaciones para facilitar la limpieza y prevenir la contaminación.
    • Cuarto Bloque – Contaminación por materiales en contacto con alimentos
    • Quinto Bloque – Prevención de la contaminación por mal manejo de agua y deshechos
    • Sexto Bloque – Marco adecuado de producción
  • Procedimientos Operativos Estandarizados de Saneamiento (POES)
    • Generalidades
    • Que son los POES?
    • Los cinco tópicos que consideran los POES
    • Ejemplo de POES
  • Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP)
    • Introducción
    • Manejo Integrado de Plagas – MIP
    • MIP en plantas elaboradoras
    • Requerimientos básicos para implementar un programa de MIP
    • Implementación del plan
    • Ejemplo: Manejo integrado de insectos voladores
  • Análisis de Peligros y Puntos Críticos de Control - HACCP (Fuente FAO)
    • Introducción
    • Definiciones del Codex Alimentarius
    • Secuencia de aplicación del HCCP
Paula Feldman
Marcela Melero
Claudia Teisaire
Arnaldo Nonzioli
Cecilia Santín
Juan Manuel Alderete
Javier Clausse
Ricardo Ferrario
Bernardo Gulielmetti
Gustavo Novas
Margarita Henriquez Moya
Laura Domínguez
Miinisterio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca. Argentina
2,011
Viral Inactivation in Foods: A Review of Traditional and Novel Food-Processing Technologies


Over one-half of foodborne illnesses are believed to be viral in origin. The ability of viruses to persist in the environment and foods, coupled with low infectious doses, allows even a small amount of contamination to cause serious problems. An increased incidence of foodborne illnesses and consumer demand for fresh, convenient, and safe foods have prompted research into alternative food-processing technologies. This review focuses on viral inactivation by both traditional processing technologies such as use of antimicrobial agents and the application of heat, and also novel processing technologies including high-pressure processing, ultraviolet- and gamma-irradiation, and pulsed electric fields. These industrially applicable control measures will be discussed in relation to the 2 most common causes of foodborne viral illnesses, hepatitis A virus and human noroviruses. Other enteric viruses, including adenoviruses, rotaviruses, aichi virus, and laboratory and industrial viral surrogates such as feline caliciviruses, murine noroviruses, bacteriophage MS2 and ΦX174, and virus-like particles are also discussed. The basis of each technology, inactivation efficacy, proposed mechanisms of viral inactivation, factors affecting viral inactivation, and applicability to the food industry with a focus on ready-to-eat foods, produce, and shellfish, are all featured in this review.

Kirsten A. Hirneisen
Elaine P. Black
Jennifer L. Cascarino
Viviana R. Fino
Dallas G. Hoover
Kalmia E. Kniel
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
2,010
Safety of Small - Scale Food Fermentations in Developing Countries


Fermented foods are animal or plant tissues subjected to the action of microorganisms or enzymes to give desirable biochemical changes and significant modification of food quality. Small-scale traditional fermented foods are common in developing countries especially in Africa. Examples include “Ogi” (fermented maize, sorghum or millet); “Kenkey” (fermented sorghummaize, sorghum or millet); “Banku” (fermented maize or mixture of maize and cassava); “Kunuzaki” (fermented millet) and “Injera” (fermented sorgum flour). Fermentation enhances the nutrient content of foods through biosynthesis of vitamins, essential amino acids and proteins, by improving the protein and fibre digestibility, by enhancing micronutrient bioavailability and by degrading antinutritional factors. Small –scale fermentation processes enhance food safety by reducing toxic compounds such as aflatoxins and cyanogens and producing antimicrobial factors such as lactic acid, bacteriocins, carbondioxide, hydrogen peroxide and ethanol. For example, Lactobacillus isolates from “ogi” are able to produce bacteriocin which is active against common food –borne pathogens including Salmonella which might contaminate the fermented food. Bacteriocin has also been known to improve the shelf life of ‘jellied’ “ogi”, extending it by 10 days. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, which has made it possible to assure the microbiological safety of “ soy-ogi” and also produce “soy-ogi” of good consistent organoleptic quality has been implemented by Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi (FIRO), Nigeria. The safety of fermented in developing countries can be improved upon greatly by using quality raw materials, using unique starter cultures that have the ability to detoxify, maintaining proper hygienic standards in the processing environment and using proper packaging.

A.O Ijabadeniyi
F.O. Omoya
IUFoST World Congress
2,006
Export Quality Management: A Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Exporters - Second Edition


Guide seeking to provide small and medium-sized exporters with a comprehensive understanding of quality-related issues linked to the quality infrastructure − consists of questions and answers related to quality control, technical requirements (standards, technical regulations, sanitary and phytosanitary measures), management systems, conformity assessment (testing, inspection, certification), metrology, accreditation, and the WTO Agreements on Technical Barriers to Trade and the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures; answers to questions are followed by relevant bibliographical references and web resources.

International Trade Centre
International Trade Centre
2,011
Limpieza y Desinfección de Plantas Procesadoras y Empacadoras de Alimentos


Toda planta procesadora o empacadora de alimentos debe contar con un programa formal de limpieza y desinfección que asegure la reducción y o eliminación del riesgo de contaminación microbiológica, química y física de los alimentos. Este programa es esencial para la obtención de un alimento salubre, inocuo y de calidad. El programa de limpieza y desinfección de las plantas es uno de los prerrequisitos del HACCP, es un requerimiento de tipo legal y también una exigencia y expectativa de los clientes. Además, una planta limpia y ordenada es un lugar seguro para los empleados.
Los principales beneficios de un programa de limpieza y desinfección pueden resumirse en:

  • Mayor vida de anaquel del alimento
  • Mas clientes y clientes mas satisfechos
  • Productos de calidad consistente

La base de un buen programa de limpieza y desinfección debe ser el diseño sanitario de la planta y los equipos, es decir que la planta y los equipos se han construido e instalado de manera que se puedan limpiar. Una superficie porosa o una soldadura mal hecha no se puede limpiar apropiadamente aunque tengamos el mejor programa de limpieza. La mejor inversión que pueden hacer es planificar todos los detalles relacionados con el diseño y la construcción de la planta y los equipos antes de iniciar operaciones para evitar errores que a futuro pueden ser muy caros.

Melvin Barillas
Ricardo Pineda
USAID
2,006
Microbial contamination of food refrigeration equipment


Refrigeration systems in chilled rooms in fifteen plants processing a variety of foods were studied. These included plants processing raw meat and salads, Chinese ready meals, dairy products, slicing and packing of cooked meats and catering establishments. An initial survey of total numbers of microbes at a total of 891 sites on evaporators, drip-trays and chilled room walls was followed up with a more detailed examination of 336 sites with high counts, selecting for Listeria spp, coliforms, enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Temperatures (particularly air on and air off, maximum and near defrost heaters) relative humidity, airflow, layout and cleaning regimes were surveyed.
The work demonstrated that bacteria were present on evaporator cooling coils in all factory chill rooms visited. In general, no correlation could be found between any of the physical measurements and the numbers and types of bacteria detected. Further trials with an experimental evaporator indicated that bacteria could be transferred from the surface of the evaporator to the air within a cold room. These trials with the experimental evaporator also indicated that little microbial growth occurred on a clean evaporator.
Although evaporator cleaning procedures were carried out in some factories as part of routine maintenance these were not shown to be effective at maintaining low levels of bacteria on evaporators. To maintain evaporator hygiene it is suggested that more regular cleaning procedures, possibly by means of automated cleansing systems, should be considered.

J. Evans
S. Russell
C. James
J. Corry
IUFoST 13th World Congress of Food Science & Technology
2,006
Food Safety Challenges within North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Partners

 
Organizational elements and limitations influencing the effective operation of the food safety regulatory infrastructures in the United States, Canada, and Mexico are compared. Progress to improve the safety of food in North American countries is hampered by common problems, yet differences exist. Foodborne illness surveillance and reporting are most comprehensive in the United States, but it is uniformly more reactive than proactive in all 3 countries. Food safety policy is based on outbreak data, but that may be short-sighted because these represent roughly 10% of foodborne illness cases. Food inspection in each country is done at 2 tiers (federal and other) by many agencies at 3 (federal/state-provincial/municipal) levels. Interagency collaboration at times of crisis is weak and frequent heterogeneity in training, inspection targets, and inspection rigor affect regulatory credibility. Enhanced recognition that industry has the prime responsibility for food safety is warranted (and must not be confused with self-inspection) along with justifiably aggressive regulatory agency interrogation of food safety system performance. End product testing should be used to verify safety system operation and should not be used to predict product safety. Specific microbial and nonmicrobial challenges to safe food in North America are highlighted and a rationalization of fiscal/human resource allocation to most effectively reduce the burden of foodborne illness is provided.

Richard A. Holley
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
2,011
The Effect of Ultraviolet and Heat Treatments on Microbial Stability, Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Properties of Ready-to-serve Tropical Almond Drink

 
There is a growing trend towards the production of ready to use multifunctional foods which has nutritional and medicinal value as well as good sensory properties. On the other hands, microbial safety of those foods is a major concern in food industry. Treatments used to ensure microbial safety of foods can affect the medicinal, nutritional and sensory properties of food. Aim of this study was to evaluate the affect of two such treatments namely UV irradiation and thermal processing on some important properties of ready to serve tropical almond drink. Prepared tropical almond ready to serve drink samples were subjected to UV irradiation and three different heat treatments. Then microbial stability, antioxidant activity and sensory properties of those treated samples were evaluated comparatively to non-treated samples. Two properties tested in this study, namely microbial stability and antioxidant activity was found to be affected by both treatments tested. Sensory properties of the product were found to be affected only by thermal processing. Compared to non-treated and thermal processed tropical almond ready to serve drinks, UV irradiated tropical almond ready to serve drinks were found to be microbiologically more safe and with preserved sensory properties. Hence, UV irradiation was identified as a suitable method to treat tropical almond ready to serve drinks to ensure microbial safety over thermal processing.

R.M.U.S.K. Rathnayaka
American Journal of Food Technology
2,012
Guía de Buenas Prácticas para la elaboración de conservas vegetales


Una calidad garantizada se traduce en un ahorro importante de los costos derivados de la producción o consumo de productos en mal estado. Los consumidores reducen sus gastos en alimentos desechados, atención de la salud, medicamentos y pérdidas de días de trabajo mientras que los industriales evitan una mala publicidad y descrédito entre los consumidores, disminuyen sus pérdidas de mercaderías, mejoran sus ventas, evitan pérdidas de tiempo en la producción y reducen los costos por demandas legales.
Para lograr este objetivo de calidad, existen normas elementales que los productores, industriales o manipuladores de alimentos deben adoptar; estas son las BUENAS PRACTICAS DE MANUFACTURA (BPM).
Las BPM tienen como objetivo establecer criterios generales de prácticas de higiene y procedimientos para la manufactura de alimentos inocuos, saludables y sanos destinados al consumo humano que hayan sido sometidos a algún proceso industrial.
Esta publicación ha sido estructurada a la manera de una guía general para efectuar la incorporación las BPM, en los establecimientos que elaboran conservas vegetales.
Siguiendo sus indicaciones se evitará la improvisación y se estimulará la acción preventiva y no reactiva en cada una de las etapas de la cadena.

Susana Hübe
Sergio Flores
María Esther Balanza
Alicia Ordóñez de Yapur
Javier Profili
Mercedes Nimo
Daniel Franco
Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca. Argentina
2,010
In vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga Extracts as Natural Food Preservatives

 

In the present study, antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga were screened against the common food borne bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus and fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hansenula anomala, Mucor mucedo, Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. All the extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. The methanol extracts (100 μg mL-1) revealed maximum zone of inhibition (p<0.001). Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa possessed considerably greater activity than Alpinia galanga. These findings established the potential of the selected rhizomes of Zingiberaceae family as effective natural food preservatives.

J. Anbu Jeba Sunilson
R. Suraj
G. Rejitha
K. Anandarajagopal
A.V. Anita Gnana Kumari
P. Promwichit
American Journal of Food Technology
2,009
High-Pressure Homogenisation for Food Sanitisation

 

The inactivation by high-pressure homogenisation of two microbial strains similar in shape but of different membrane resistance, namely a Gram-negative, Escherichia coli, and a Grampositive bacterium, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, was investigated to clarify the main factors influencing cell inactivation. Tests were carried in a lab-scale Stansted Power Fluid highpressure homogenizer up to 250 MPa and several homogenization cycles. Results exhibited a strong dependence on initial cell concentration, which suggests a cell-cell interaction in the disruption valve enhancing bacterial inactivation to higher extent than in other homogenisation apparatus reported in literature. In addition, a strong difference was found between the two bacterial strains, with the Gram-positive one exhibiting a significantly higher resistance to the treatment.

Hence, a treatment was optimised for fruit juices, by determining the optimal operating pressure and number of passes through the homogeniser for achieving the lethal disruption of the bacteria, yet preserving the sensory and nutritional attributes.

F. Donsì
G. Ferrari
P. Maresca
IUFoST
2,006
Food Safety Guide for Farmers Markets in Scotland

 

This guide has been designed to help market traders and organisers at farmers markets meet food safety requirements. The details contained within this guide apply to all farmers markets and will also apply to traders at other markets in Scotland, for example car boot sales, fetes, agricultural shows and continental markets. It aims to provide specific information in relation to different product categories and provide general advice on how to comply with the Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 (in particular, Chapter III) and the Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995. However, any further specific or detailed information required should be sought from the Environmental Health Department of your local authority.

Note that this guide has been written for stalls where there is more than one person (manager and staff). However, we recognise that in many cases, stalls will be operated by one-man businesses. You are therefore advised to interpret the guidance accordingly. In the event of any concerns, you should contact the Environmental Health Department of your local authority and/or take independent legal advice.

Food Standards Agency Scotland
Food Standards Agency
2,005
Validation of the Micro Biological Survey Method for Total Viable Count and E. coli in Food Samples

 
The aim of this study was the validation of the Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method for microbiological analysis of food for Total Viable Count (TVC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The MBS method is a rapid quantitative alternative method for the detection and selective counting of bacteria in agro-food, in water and in environmental samples. It is based on colorimetric survey in mono-use disposable reaction vials that must be filled with the samples without any preliminary treatment (e.g., homogenization, dilution, etc.); the greater the number of bacteria presents into the sample, the faster the color change. However, an independent evaluation of the analytical results obtained with MBS method would be required before commercialization. Therefore, this alternative method was validated in comparison to the reference method. The general estimate of precision, reliability, uncertainty, linearity, accuracy and selectivity were determined. All the performance parameters have demonstrated total correlation between the alternative method and the reference method for the detection and counting of TVC and E. coli both in artificially contaminated and in naturally contaminated samples. MBS assay can be used as rapid and user friendly screening method for detection of TVC and E. coli in food industry.

Giorgia Bottini
Francesca Losito
Alessio De Ascenti
Francesca Romana Priolisi
Alberto Mari
Giovanni Antonini
American Journal of Food Technology
2,011
Guía de las buenas prácticas de procesamiento para la producción artesanal de la tunta

 

La papa es un alimento primordial en toda la región andina. Su cultivo data de aproximadamente de siete mil años antes de Cristo. Los antiguos peruanos llegaron a domesticar más de dos mil variedades de papa y, a la vez, desarrollaron tecnologías de procesamiento basadas en la deshidratación de los tubérculos con el fin de diversificar su uso y asegurar su alimentación. Dichas tecnologías se hallan vigentes, gracias a la continua práctica de los pobladores andinos, en la elaboración de productos tales como la tunta, el chuño, la papa seca y el tocosh, que son alimentos de alto consumo y con importancia comercial en toda la región andina.

La tunta, motivo de la presente guía, se produce en mayor cantidad en el altiplano puneño, particularmente en las provincias aymaras, donde toma el nombre de tunta. En otras zonas del país de habla quechua como Cuzco, Huancavelica y Ayacucho elaboran un producto similar al que denominan “moraya”; en Ancash y Junín se le llama “moray”, mientras que los consumidores citadinos de Lima, Arequipa y otras ciudades lo han bautizado como chuño blanco para diferenciarlo del chuño de color negro (chuño negro).

Cristina Fonseca
Eddy Huarachi
William Chura
George Cotrado
Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP)
2,008
Irradiation and Packaging-Food Safety Aspects and Shelf Life Extension of Solar Dried Garlic (Allium sativum) Powder

Influence of gamma irradiation and packaging material on physicochemical characteristics (moisture, protein, ascorbic acid, pH, mineral contents and browning value) and shelf life extension of garlic powder was investigated. Garlic cloves were meshed with skin, dried in solar dryer and then ground to 100 mesh. The dry powder was packed in polyethylene pouches of 0.015 (PE1), 0.03 mm (PE2) and polypropylene bottles (PP) of 0.1 mm thickness. One part of the packed samples was irradiated with 1.0 k Gy gamma rays and the other one kept as control. The data revealed no effect of irradiation on moisture (8.02-8.29%) and protein (13.00-13.30%) content during storage. The ascorbic acid content decreased from 20.82 to 19.56 mg 100 g-1 in irradiated and control samples and maximum retention of this vitamin was noted in samples packaged in polypropylene bottles. The effect of irradiation and packaging material on mineral content in garlic powder was also non-significant. The browning value increased from 0.17-0.22 ΔA420 in irradiated and control samples. Irradiation improved the microbial quality of the product in all the packaging materials throughout the entire storage period. It is inferred from this study that the irradiated solar dried garlic powder packaged in polypropylene (PP) pouches can be stored beyond 5 months with no significant change in quality, appearance and nutrients.

Amal Nizakat Bibi
Amal Badshah Khattak
Aurang Zeb
Zahid Mehmood
American Journal of Food Technology
2,008