Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas
This manual is meant to act as a guide for growers who are developing a food safety plan to meet the requirements of a USDA GAP Audit during 2011.
The goal of the food safety plan is to implement the objectives outlined in the United States Food and Drug Administration’s “Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables.” In addition, the food safety plan is designed to address the guidelines in the United States Department of Agriculture Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Audit Verification Checklist, a copy of which is included at the begging of this notebook (pages 3-32). This manual follows the format of the USDA Checklist.
Keep in mind that this manual is meant as a guide. There may be portions that do not apply to your operation and should be removed. Conversely, you may find it necessary to include additional material to meet the standards of USDA on your farm.
In the supply chains for fruit and vegetables there is an increasing demand for more attention to food safety. Farmer Field Schools has proven to be a very effective method to incorporate food safety aspects into farming practices1. This manual is a reference guide for the inclusion of Food Safety aspects in Farmer Field School (FFS) programmes. Health (consumer protection) is the main entry point for food safety in this manual. However, in some cases, marketing benefits could occur from improved food safety and quality.
This manual is written for managers of (national) IPM programmes, TOT master trainers and FFS facilitators.
This manual should be used as a source of information and inspiration. It is meant to be changed and adapted to the local situation by users. It is recommended to test and validate exercises with experienced FFS facilitators. Additional facilitator training on food safety issues will probably be necessary. An assessment of food safety issues at farm level or community level can be part of such training. Further feed-back from facilitators and farmers will help to adapt food safety modules or exercises to the local needs.
Content of the manual
Much of the content of this manual is based on field experiences from FFS programmes in Asia and West-Africa. Background information is used from various sources, listed in chapter 4, including ASEAN GAP training materials. However, any errors in this manual are our responsibility.
Part I of this manual provides practical information about food safety and a reference list for more detailed information. It also contains a section on how to incorporate food safety elements into existing FFS programmes.
Part II contains a number of exercises and special topics on food safety for FFS. These exercises can be used for inspiration, but need to be adapted to fit the crop and the local conditions.
The focus of this manual is on pre-production, production, harvest and post-harvest on-farm.
The key points made in Pesticides and Food Safety are that pesticides may improve variety, availability, and quality of foods. IPM programs are decreasing actual pesticide use, regulatory and monitoring programs are in place, and the human health risks from consuming pesticide residues on our foods appear low. This issue is very complicated and subject to different interpretations due to trust, credibility, values, and familiarity with the scientific process. Thus, we will read and hear various accounts of the supposed contamination of our food supply by pesticide residues. It is important to realize that we must be informed consumers, basing related decisions on information from several sources such as universities, industry, the media, and public and private organizations. Reviewing information from a wide array of origins will allow better understanding of how each group interprets, presents, and answers important questions relative to pesticide residues and food safety.
- Read and follow all label instructions. This includes directions for use, precautionary statements (hazards to humans, domestic animals, and endangered species), environmental hazards, rates of application, number of applications, reentry intervals, harvest restrictions, storage and disposal, and any specific warnings and/or precautions for safe handling of the pesticide.
- Wear appropriate protective clothing and equipment when working with pesticides.
- Rinse containers immediately after emptying because some pesticide residues will dry quickly and become difficult to remove. If the container cannot be rinsed immediately, replace the cap until it can be rinsed.
- Never reuse pesticide containers (rinsed or unrinsed).
- Contact the manufacturer, dealer, or business where pesticides were purchased to see if they will take back rinsed pesticide containers or unused concentrates.
- Never allow empty pesticide containers to accumulate where unauthorized people have access to them. Such containers may be dangerous to children, pets, livestock, and wildlife, as well as adults who might convert them to other uses.
- In the event of a pesticide spill, remove all persons from possible chemical exposure; control the spill; contain it by diking and absorbing liquid pesticides with dry material such as sawdust, kitty litter, or shredded paper; and report the spill.
- Post emergency telephone numbers in a prominent location.
- The proper transportation and storage of pesticides and the proper rinsing and disposal of empty pesticide containers demonstrate that applicators are competent professionals who are concerned about the environment.
Las ropas y otros artículos usados para proteger el cuerpo del contacto con los pesticidas o sus residuos son conocidos con el nombre de equipo protector personal (PPE). El PPE incluye mamelucos, todas las ropas usadas (incluyendo la ropa interior), guantes, calzado, delantales, distintos artículos para usar en la cabeza, protectores de ojos, escudos faciales, y respiradores.
This document addresses microbial food safety hazards and good agricultural and management practices common to the growing, harvesting, washing, sorting, packing, and transporting of most fruits and vegetables sold to consumers in an unprocessed or minimally processed (raw) form. This voluntary, science-based guidance can be used by both domestic and foreign fresh fruit and vegetable producers to help ensure the safety of their produce. The voluntary guidance is consistent with U.S. trade rights and obligations and will not impose unnecessary or unequal restrictions or barriers on either domestic or foreign producers.
The produce guide is guidance and it is not a regulation. As guidance and if applied as appropriate and feasible to individual fruit and vegetable production operations, the guide will help to minimize microbial food safety hazards for fresh produce. Because it is guidance, and not a regulation, the guide does not have the force and effect of law and thus is not subject to enforcement. Operators should use the general recommendations in this guide to tailor food safety practices appropriate to their particular operations. In no case do the recommendations in this guide supercede applicable Federal, state, or local laws or regulations for U.S. operators. Operators outside of the U.S. should follow corresponding or similar standards, laws or regulations.
Pests include plants and animals that vector disease, interfere with the production of food and fiber crops, or otherwise detract from our quality of life. Pesticides are natural or synthetic substances used by man to control pest organisms by disrupting some part of their life processes. Literally, the term pesticide means to “kill pests.” Pesticides also include substances such as attractants, repellents, and growth regulators which may not kill the target pest(s). Thus, all compounds used to control and manage pests are classified as pesticides.
A management system which includes crop records increases returns by improving nutrient and pesticide-use efficiency. This Field File provides an organized place for storing information on each crop-producing field. Five basic tables are printed on the folder for recording information related to crop production. Information recorded while in the field should be transferred to the appropriate table on the Field File on a regular basis. Field Files can also be used to store legal records for restricted-use pesticides, soil survey information, aerial photos, and other documents.
- Crop Information
- Soil Test Summary
- Nutrient Planning
- Nutrient Applications
- Pesticide-use Records
Agromisa would like to stress from the start that use of chemical pesticides should be completely avoided wherever possible. All options for using alternative, non-chemical methods of crop protection should be explored first. Only if none of these are possible should chemical control be considered as a last resort.
It can be very difficult for an individual farmer or advisor in the field to gain a clear understanding of all the aspects of pesticide use. This Agrodok defines principles of correct and effective application for user, environment and consumer of the harvested product. Risks of human poisoning and risks of environmental damage can be minimized if everyone involved in the trade, distribution and application of pesticides knows how to handle and apply them safely.
Unfortunately, the sobering reality is that health and safety policies to convince pesticide users to operate safely under dangerous conditions have very often failed. Assumptions that information systems and health and safety measures are present and used, are often overrated and too optimistic. Very often the information has not reached the people who are applying the pesticides.
Read and heed the precautions on the label. Relatively few deaths have occurred among workers handling poisonous agricultural products or insecticides. Those that have occurred can be traced to disregard of even the minimum safety directions and precautions found on product labels.
Some violations occur through ignorance or misunderstanding of the available information. Many more violations result from plain carelessness --- or what is worse, recklessness on the part of workers who have been adequately informed.
The key to safe handling is understanding coupled with the diligent practice of safe working habits. Accidents with pesticides can be prevented. Some of the major causes are: (1) leaving the material within reach of irresponsible persons; (2) failure to read and follow the use precautions on the label; and (3) carelessness in the disposal of empty containers.
This document explains how to select gloves suitable for handling pesticides. A chemical-resistance chart for various approved materials is presented, and examples of the types of available gloves are displayed.
Pesticides can enter the body in four main ways: by mouth, by inhalation, or by contact with the skin or eyes. In most pesticide handling situations, the skin is the part of the body most likely to receive exposure. About 97% of human exposure to pesticides during application of liquid sprays occurs through contact with the skin.
Farmers play an important role in preventing food-borne illnesses through their use of good agricultural and management practices. There are many ways that farmers can reduce the risk of contamination of their produce, such as:
- The proper use (and disposal) of water,
- Proper compost and application of manure,
- Good hygiene habits from the workers in the farm,
- Regular equipment checkup and maintenance,
- Proper sanitation of processing surfaces and transportation vehicles,
- Accurate record keeping.
With these practices, a farmer is not only contributing to a better and safer food system, but also creating more consumer confidence about the farmer’s product and farm while reducing the potential liabilities from a food-borne outbreak.
Food safety is a concern to all involved in the production, marketing and consumption of foodstuff. Produce, fruits and vegetables, present unique problems in that they are often consumed raw without processing. In many cases, small produce growers market their crops directly to consumers or outlets where they are sold fresh. Raw foods can carry disease-causing microorganism like Salmonella and E.coli. Unless these pathogens are killed or washed off, people may become sick. This chapter discusses the risks of microorganism contamination from the time of planting to harvest to preparing for sale.
Risks are related to our actions or lack thereof. When we decide to do something, we should consciously strive for practices that minimize the risks. The microbial food safety risks of growing only one crop that is shipped and marketed directly from field to the processor, is markedly less than that of growing a variety of crops with a variety of exposures to potential contamination. A person growing potatoes for a chipper has less food safety risk than someone growing and direct marketing fresh lettuce, carrots, radishes and strawberries at the same time. Growers are willing to accept this higher level of risk because diversification for a small farm is more profitable. These growers need to evaluate their operations to minimize risk and to promote consumer education in food safety. For example, growers can provide information to their customers about the need to wash all produce before eating.
This self-assessment tool will help diversified growers identify potential risk areas and provide them with information and resources to minimize the risk. The purpose of this section of Food*A*Syst is to provide fruit and vegetable growers with a self-assessment tool to determine their level of risk for food contamination
El documento se ha estructurado de manera tal que al lector se le facilite la comprensión de los objetivos de las buenas prácticas agrícolas. Las recomendaciones que se ofrecen van acompañadas de indicadores que típicamente se utilizan para verificar el cumplimiento de las buenas prácticas agrícolas.
La guía también proporciona algunos ejemplos en materia de documentación, identificada como una de las principales debilidades en la implementación de sistemas de gestión de inocuidad y calidad, con el propósito de facilitar un punto de referencia para una labor que debe ser atendida a la medida de cada empresa.
El manual que aquí se entrega, explica de modo singularmente claro las Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas - BPA en el cultivo de palto, de modo que puedan ser acogidas y aplicadas por los profesionales y técnicos especializados en transferencia tecnológica así como por productores interesados.
Por la importancia que tiene el empleo de Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas en este tipo de cultivo tal como lo plantean en el presente manual, se convierte en el primer documento en su género con conocimientos básicos y específicos, consejos prácticos, expuestos en un lenguaje sencillo para facilitar su aplicación principalmente a nivel profesional especializado, sin embargo también útil para los propios productores.
La mora (Rubus spp), es una de las frutas de exportación de más alto valor en Centro América. La producción, tanto en cultivares mejorados como de especies silvestres, ayudan a mejorar los ingresos de los pequeños agricultores.
La tendencia del mercado consumidor (Estados Unidos y Europa); es la preferencia por productos orgánicos o ecológicos. En Guatemala existen colectores de mora silvestre, alrededor de 400, en diferentes comunidades del altiplano occidental.
Sin embargo, recientemente se ha observado que la mora silvestre es atacada por varias enfermedades y plagas, como: la roya, virosis, barrenadores del tallo, larvas defoliadoras, bacterias y nematodos, lo que en algunos casos a significado el rechazo de embarques por la presencia de pústulas de roya, causando pudrición en los frutos, Sumado a esto en algunas comunidades han surgido brotes con síntomas virales.
Con base a lo anterior, se hace necesario, capacitar a los productores de mora silvestre, en cuanto a las buenas prácticas de manejo: distancia de siembra, tutorado, podas, programa fitosanitario, programa de fertilización orgánica, manejo de cosecha y poscosecha; basados en el contexto de la agricultura orgánica, enriqueciendo el suelo con materia orgánica como punto de partida, sin alterar o modificar el equilibrio ecológico, sino simplemente implementar medidas que disminuyan el efecto de las plagas para obtener cosechas sanas e inocuas.
- Establecimiento de la plantación
- Labores culturales
- Manejo integrado de plagas
- Caldos minerales
Tamaño del documento: 8.5MB
The use of pesticides aids in vegetable production improvement. Despite the fears and real problems pesticides can create, these crop protection chemicals improve environmental quality for man, animals and plants.
More than 50,000 destructive plant diseases exist today. Over 10,000 species of insects are considered as pests. A composite list of over 1,775 weeds has been identified by the Weed Science Society of America. With pests such as plant diseases, insects, and weeds decreasing the already inadequate food supply in the world, a need for some means of controlling pests in order to improve the quality and quantity of vegetables produced today is required.
Manmade chemicals are often used as the front line of defense against destructive plant diseases, insects, and weeds. When properly used, they can minimize agricultural losses and pest competition. Knowledge of the pest to control, availability, chemical characteristics and capabilities, application techniques as well as safety concerns are all an integral part of the planning process of a conscientious producer.
The Basic Principles of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs):
- The best way to prevent corrective action by state and federal governments is to prevent microbial contamination of fresh strawberries.
- Use GAPs. To minimize microbial food safety hazards in strawberries, growers should use the GAPs outlined in this program and apply them to the areas of their operation over which they have control, such as sources of water, field sanitation, worker hygiene standards, etc. Managing and predicting potential sources of contamination is an essential step in producing a safe strawberry.
- Anything that comes into contact with strawberries has the potential to infect. The source and quality of each contact dictates the potential for contamination. Water (used for irrigation and pesticide mixing) is a primary source of contamination.
- All pesticides must only be used in strict accordance with manufacturer recommendations. Pesticides must comply with state, federal and local ordinances.
- Non-composted manure is a source of human pathogens and should not be used in strawberry fields. Any practice using manure and/or compost should be closely managed.
- Worker Health and Hygiene practices play a critical role in minimizing potential contamination. The availability of clean toilet facilities, hand washing stations, and keeping track of employee general health are all part of good employee hygiene practices.
- A food safety program and trace-back practices establish accountability. The ability to trace back product from the consumer to the retailer to the shipment to the farm to the harvester is essential for quickly isolating the problem area and protecting the entire crop and industry. Documentation must be kept to help prove proper attention has been paid to risk prevention.
- Common Avocado Quality Problems
- Fruit Rot Management
- Disease Management
- Insect Management
- Vertebrate Pest and Snail Control
- Harvesting and Field Handling
- Hygiene and Food Safety
El alcance de este documento concierne sólo a lechugas y verduras de hojas verdes frescos y pre-cortados. No incluye productos mezclados con diferentes ingredientes (i.e. ensaladas que puedan contener carnes, quesos y/o aderezos) Ejemplos de “lechugas/verduras de hojas verdes” incluyen lechuga iceberg, lechuga romana, lechuga de hoja verde, lechuga de hoja roja, lechuga mantequilla, lechuga de hojas bebés (i.e. lechuga no madura o verduras de hojas verdes), escarole, endibia, mezcla de primavera y espinaca. Estos cultivos son típicamente considerados lechugas y verduras de hojas verdes por la FDA pero podrían no ser definidos similarmente por otros organismos reguladores federales o estatales. Este documento también está limitado a ofrecer lineamientos de inocuidad alimentaria para cultivos bajo prácticas a campo abierto y podría no incluir temas de inocuidad alimentaria relacionados a cultivos hidropónicos o con técnicas de producción sin suelo para lechugas/verduras de hojas verdes.
Las lechugas/verduras de hojas verdes pueden ser cosechados mecánicamente o a mano y casi siempre son consumidos sin cocerse o crudas. Debido a que las lechugas/verduras de hojas verdes pueden ser cosechados y seleccionados a mano para fines de calidad, existen numerosos “puntos de contacto” al principio de la cadena de suministro y un similar número de “puntos de contacto” posteriores en la cadena debido a que los productos son utilizados en operaciones de servicios de alimentos o en ventas al por menor. Cada uno de estos “puntos de contacto” representa una oportunidad potencial de contaminación cruzada. Para propósitos de este documento, un “punto de contacto” es cualquier momento en el que un alimento es tocado por un trabajador o el alimento toca la superficie de un equipo, la cual está en contacto con alimentos.
Existen múltiples ocasiones para el empleo de prácticas de gestión de riesgos de inocuidad alimentaria para mejorar la sanidad de las lechugas/verduras de hojas verdes. En la producción y cosecha de lechugas/verduras de hojas verdes como productos agrícolas crudos, las GAPs son comúnmente empleadas para producir alimentos tan innocuamente como sea posible. En una operación de procesamiento, los principios básicos de cGMPs, HACCP, sanidad y procedimientos de operaciones documentadas son comúnmente utilizados para producir los alimentos lo más innocuamente posible. Las lechugas/verduras de hojas verdes son altamente perecederas y es muy recomendado que sean distribuidos, almacenados y mostrados bajo refrigeración.