Procesamiento de Alimentos
La palmera de asaí, (Euterpe oleracea) es una palmera nativa del norte de Sudamérica, que actualmente se aprovecha en el pacifico colombiano para la producción de palmito, sin embargo se reconoce también por su nutritivo fruto. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el potencial de recuperación de aceite, el perfil ácidos grasos, el contenido de taninos, polifenoles, antocianinas, la capacidad antioxidante y el color de la pulpa del asaí, colectada en el pacífico colombiano. Para el análisis proximal se utilizaron métodos oficiales, los polifenoles, taninos y antocianinas se determinaron por espectrofotometría y la actividad antioxidante se midió por el método de reducción de hierro (FRAP). Los resultados expresados en base seca indicaron que el asaí tiene un alto contenido de lípidos de 49,4%, proteínas 9,3%, cenizas 2,2%, y fibra dietaría total de 20,0%. Es importante destacar que más del 60% de los ácidos grasos corresponden a ácido oléico, el contenido de polifenoles fue de 3,06 g/100 g; taninos de 1,45 g/100 g; antocianinas 1,80 g/100 g y la capacidad antioxidante fue de 787. 37 μMol/L de Trolox. Se concluye que el asaí recolectado en el pacífico colombiano tiene un alto valor nutricional y contiene compuestos antioxidantes valiosos que lo hacen un material promisorio para su comercialización y así aprovechar al máximo sus propiedades.
A study was conducted using Lab Spray Dryer (LU-222 Advanced Model, Twin cyclone) to produce spray-dried Ber powder. Thirty two experiment were conducted keeping five different operating variables of spray dryer i.e., inlet temperature (170, 180, 190, 200 and 210°C), aspirator blower capacity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80%) and feed pump capacity (9, 12, 15, 18 and 21%) and feed parameters i.e., maltodextrin concentration (4, 6, 8, 10 and 12%) as encapsulating material upon the biochemical properties (moisture content, acidity and ascorbic acid) of powder were observed. Analysis of experimental data i.e., Ber powder properties and process parameters yielded best quality (moisture content 3.9%, acidity 0.55% and ascorbic acid 38.4 mg/100 g) of powder at inlet air temperature 190°C, aspirator blower capacity 60%, feed pump capacity 15%, encapsulating material 8%.
Despite the recommendations of international health organizations and scientific research carried out around the world, consumers do not take in sufficient quantities of healthy fruit and vegetable products. The use of new, ‘advanced’ preservation methods creates a unique opportunity for food manufacturers to retain nutrient content similar to that found in fresh fruits and vegetables. This review presents a summary of the published literature regarding the potential of high-pressure andmicrowave preservation, the most studied of the ‘advanced’ processes, to retain the natural vitamin A, B, C, phenolic, mineral and fiber content in fruits and vegetables at the time of harvest. Comparisons are made with more traditional preservation methods that utilize thermal processing. Case studies on specific commodities which have received the most attention are highlighted; these include apples, carrots, oranges, tomatoes and spinach. In addition to summarizing the literature, the review includes a discussion of postharvest losses in general and factors affecting nutrient losses in fruits and vegetables. Recommendations are made for future research required to evaluate these advanced process methods.
En este trabajo pretendemos además de hacer la descripción tecnológica para la obtención de los helados, detallar los conceptos básicos para que este alimento sea seguro y saludable para su consumo.
Realizaremos un análisis pormenorizado desde la calidad de la materia prima, insumos, envases, conservación y consumo, hasta los cuidados y precauciones en cada etapa de su elaboración, considerando el marco legal que rige estas actividades, para lo cual incluimos los anexos correspondientes.
Capítulo 1: Evolución de los Helados
- Evolución de los sistemas utilizados en la elaboración de helados
- Producción mundial y consumo de helados
Capítulo 2 Aspectos Legales
- Clasificación de los helados
Capítulo 3 Composición De Los Helados
- Hidratos de carbono
Capítulo 4 Descripción De Los Ingredientes Básicos De Los Helados
- La leche y sus derivados
- Grasas comestibles
- Los huevos y sus derivados
- Azúcares alimenticios
- Cacao y chocolate
- Frutas y jugos
- Proteínas de origen vegetal
- Otros productos
Capítulo 5 Aditivos
- Clasificación de aditivos
- Usos de aditivos
- Clasificación de estabilizantes
- Usos de estabilizantes
Capítulo 6 Consideraciones Básicas Para La Elaboración De Helados
- Según el poder anticongelante
- Según el agregado de aire, Overrun
- Composición de los distintos tipos de helados
Capítulo 7 Preparación Y Tratamiento De Las Mezclas
- Etapas en la preparación de las mezclas
- Mezcla y emulsión de ingredientes
Capítulo 8 Homogeneización Y Pasteurización De La Mezcla
- Homogeneización de la mezcla
- Pasteurización de la mezcla
- Capítulo 9 Maduración Y Mantecación De La Mezcla
Capítulo 10 Agregados De Frutas
- Características Microbiológicas de las Frutas frescas
- Desinfección y tratamiento de las Frutas frescas
- Características Microbiológicas de las Frutas secas
- Desinfección y tratamiento de las Frutas secas
- Capítulo 11 Líneas De Envasado De Helados
Capítulo 12 Endurecimiento De Los Helados
- Sistemas de endurecimiento de helados
- Factores que afectan la congelación
Beverages can be a refreshing way for consumers to get an increasing range of health-promoting ingredients. The main objective of this investigation was utilizing whey in production of functional beverage as a whey-based fluid. Whey was fortified with mango powder (20.0%), flaxseed oil (0.5%) and (pectin JMJ and monoglyceride, 0.5% w/w), homogenized, pasteurized and then kept cool. Beverages were monitored at specific time intervals over a 15 day storage period. Physical properties and chemical composition was tested. Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), were analyzed using three different assays, i.e., DPPH free radical scavenging activity, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Ferric Reducing-antioxidant Power (FRAP). These assays, based on different chemical mechanisms, were selected to take into account the wide variety and range of action of antioxidant compounds present in beverage. Results showed a new functional beverage with special characteristics has a little sedimentation and low viscosity exhibit excellent flavor derived from mango. This functional beverage increased its nutrient content including omega 3, minerals, vitamins and unique proteins, besides digestible carbohydrates. The polyphenol-rich and carotenoids in beverage displayed high antioxidative capacities. Beverage was rich in polyphenol and carotenoids exhibited high antioxidative capacities. This whey-based beverage is put a wide range of components acting together synergistically that role, maintain and improve of a consumer health.
The aim of the research work is to formulate a nutritional juice to fulfil the nutritional requirements of human being through cost effective manner. Thus, the developmental strategy is to produce a nutritional health drink with natural preservatives as an alternative to chemically prepared modern soft drinks to avoid health risks and increase the bioavailability of fruits and vegetables derived nutritional fractionates. Selected fruits, vegetables and some spices including indigenous species of Indian origin were utilized in a proper proportion in order to attain the human nutritional requirements. The methodology includes the extraction of nutritional juice from fruits and vegetables and subsequent analysis of nutritive value. Hence, the nutritional content, percentage of antioxidants and antimicrobial activity were also assessed in order to fulfil the nutritional requirements and longevity of the juice without any chemical additives. Upon fulfilling the criteria of nutritional requirements, the palatability was tested with many volunteers to know their willingness of consumption and found that all had accepted it. In the modern world, many people are consuming juices, foods with chemical based production or preservation without knowing the actual deteriorative and negative side effects. But the consumption of natural nutritional juice kind of products, which are produced directly from natural resources, would certainly improve the health status of individual without any negative side effects. The result of this research study reveals the presence of large amount of antioxidants, which is significantly high (94.7%) and other nutritive factors such as vitamins, minerals, also proves the same.
This Bulletin presents highlights of the study to develop a new foodstuff, the Monascus-nata complex, which combines the functions of cholesterol-lowering monacolin k and bacterial dietary-fiber. Two Monascus strains were fermented within cubical bacterial cellulose, nata de coco, obtained from Acetobacter-fermented coconut juice, in a conditioned medium. The production levels and stability of monacolin k in the cultured Monascus-nata complex were determined to develop optimal fermentation condition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed that the Monascus mycelium could grow through the cellulose network of nata. Rice powder as a major carbon source and monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a nitrogen source gave an appealing coloration after 12 days of fermentation at 30oC. Compared with that of dyed nata, the color of the Monascus-nata complex had better resistance to washing, heat, freezing, acidification, and alkalization. A 66.1% decolorization was found under irradiation with 366 nm ultraviolet light after 36 h. Results also indicated that the medium that comprised 5% glucose and 1.5% ammonium phosphate at pH 6.0-7.0 produced the most monacolin k (157 mg/L) for Monascus pilosus NCHU M-35. However, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and 0.001% ZnSO4 inhibited the intracellular accumulation of monacolin k. Monacolin k within the Monascus-nata complex was relatively resistant to washing and changes of pH, but thermal processing and freezing storage markedly reduced the amount present. This novel Monascus-nata complex is potentially a good, healthy, and a new vegetarian foodstuff and can be easily produced from any agri-by-product containing carbohydrates.
El mantenimiento de la esterilidad en conservas alimenticias depende de la hermeticidad del cierre, ocurriendo las alteraciones por fugas principalmente por defectos en el mismo. Por ello, en la industria conservera es de obligado cumplimiento el control de calidad de los cierres. Para evaluar su calidad, un técnico cualificado y entrenado debe inspeccionar una muestra representativa. Los resultados han de ser registrados en hojas de control y en caso de no ser satisfactorios, aplicar adecuadas medidas correctoras. Los envases pueden ser metálicos (latas) o de vidrio (botes).
Energy use and carbon emissions are important factors in food industry and in food dehydration in particular. A low-cost, small-scale dehydrator was tested to determine the impact of ventilation waste heat recovery (VHR) on its energy efficiency and carbon footprint. Cilantro, an important cash crop, was dried under three ventilation conditions while product moisture loss and energy use in the dehydrator were recorded. The ventilation conditions were: without VHR, with VHR, and with VHR and exhaust recirculation. Coefficient of performance (COP) for dehydrator operation under each operating condition was 0.135, 0.187, and 0.194 respectively. Tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent produced when operating the dehydrator were 20.0, 13.1, and 18.0 for the same conditions. COP of the dehydrator increased 39% when a VHR system was added and carbon emissions equivalent was reduced by 35%. Product drying time was also reduced when the VHR system was added to the dehydrator, increasing the amount of production time available.
En el presente estudio se evaluó la perdida de vitamina C en el secado de aguaymanto, para eso las muestras fueron separadas en dos grupos sumergiendo a uno de estos en una solución de 1.5% NaOH por 5 segundos a 80°C y al otro grupo en agua a las mismas condiciones, luego cada grupo se dividió en dos subgrupos a uno de los cuales se le sometió posteriormente a un secado convectivo (60°C y 3 m/s) y al otro además de un secado convectivo en las mismas condiciones tuvo una previa deshidratación osmótica a vacío (40°c, 65°Brix, 540 mmHg por 4 horas), y se uso como parámetro de parada del proceso un 20% de humedad del producto, controlado evaluando la evolución de la pérdida de peso. A los aguaymantos deshidratados, se le determinó el contenido de vitamina C y la humedad. Se determinó que en la deshidratación osmoconvectiva se dan mayores pérdidas de vitamina C que en por secado convectivo, y el pretratamiento con NaOH influye positivamente facilitando la transferencia de masa en los procesos de secado generando también menores perdidas de la vitamina. Se recomienda para producir aguaymanto deshidratado con la menor perdida de vitamina C, secar convectivamente a 60°C y 3m/s haciendo un pretratamiento de NaOH al 1.5% por 5 segundos a 80°C.
Se evaluó el efecto de la proporción del jugo de naranja, jugo de papaya y jugo de piña en las características sensoriales de un néctar mixto, utilizando el Diseño de Mezclas. Mediante la prueba sensorial realizada se obtuvo una mayor aceptabilidad para el sabor en la muestra que tuvo proporciones iguales de las 3 frutas; una mayor aceptabilidad para el color en la muestra que tuvo proporciones iguales de naranja y papaya pero sin piña; y mayor aceptabilidad para el olor en la muestra que tuvo 4 veces más piña que naranja y papaya. El modelo que más se ajustó al diseño propuesto fue el cuadrático con un p< 0.05 en todos los casos y con R2 iguales a 0.9646, 0.9684, 0.9819 para el sabor, color y olor respectivamente.
Mangoes are under-utilized fruits that grow naturally in many sub-Saharan African countries. At the present time most mangoes are sold fresh in local markets. There is little done to preserve them for use during the off-season. Drying is one way in which the economic potential of mangoes could be exploited. This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the kinetics of mango drying using three basic drying methods: open-air drying on wire mesh racks; solar drying in a prototype dryer equipped with solar-powered exhaust fans; and forced-air drying in an Armfield Model UOP8 laboratory-scale tray dryer. Results could then be used to determine appropriate drying techniques for mango processing in sub-Saharan Africa on both local and commercial scales. Of these methods, forced air drying was found to provide the best overall results, based on water removal rates and general control over the drying process. Solar drying, while viewed as a promising technology for application in developing countries, was considerably slower than forced- air drying and is severely restricted by climatic conditions. A similar situation was observed for open-air drying, which was the slowest drying method of the three. Based upon mathematical models developed for each drying method, 11.6 hours was predicted as being required for mangoes in the forced-air dryer to a final moisture content of 10% (wet basis). Sixteen (16) hours and 24 hours of exposure to appropriate drying conditions were predicted as being required for solar drying and open-air drying, respectively. This could take three or four days to achieve under actual operating conditions. These times were supported by experimentally determined values. The impact of air temperature and linear air velocity on the drying kinetics of sliced mangoes were also investigated using the forced-air dryer. A linear velocity of 0.5 m/s was found to be sufficient for satisfactory drying of the mango slices when combined with an air temperature in the range of 50ΕC to 60ΕC. It is recommended that forced-air drying be utilized whenever possible for the drying of mango slices for both food safety and food quality reasons.
The objective of this research was to study the effect of osmotic dehydration process (fast osmotic dehydration; FOD and slow osmotic dehydration; SOD) on the physical, chemical and sensory properties of osmo-dried cantaloupe. First, the effect of calcium salts (calcium chloride and calcium lactate) on the firmness of fresh cantaloupe was investigated to obtain the suitable immersion time, types of calcium salt and their concentrations for the pretreatment step prior to osmotic dehydration process. It was found that the proper condition for pretreatment step was 2% calcium lactate for 3 h as considered from the firmness and sensory evaluation. After pretreatment, cantaloupe slices were subjected to two osmotic dehydration processes and then dried in hot air oven to obtain osmo-dried cantaloupe. The physical, chemical and sensory properties of osmo-dried cantaloupe obtained from FOD and SOD were comparatively determined. The result showed that no difference in colour (L*, a*, b* values) and browning index was found between sample produced by FOD and SOD. SOD could maintain the shape and present softer texture, resulting in higher mean score of appearance as evaluated by consumers. However, lower vitamin C, phenolic compound and DPPH radical scavenging activity were found in sample produced by SOD compared to FOD. The sensory evaluation was found to be better in sample produced by SOD as considered from appearance and texture scores. However, no difference in mean score of overall acceptability was observed between sample produced by FOD and SOD process.
One of the major growth segments in the food retail industry is fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. This new market trend has thus increased the demands to the food industry for seeking new strategies to increase storability and shelf life and to enhance microbial safety of fresh produce. The technology of edible coatings has been considered as one of the potential approaches for meeting this demand. Edible coatings from renewable sources, including lipids, polysaccharides, and proteins, can function as barriers to water vapor, gases, and other solutes and also as carriers of many functional ingredients, such as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, thus enhancing quality and extending shelf life of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. This review discusses the rationale of using edible coatings on fresh and minimally processed produce, the challenges in developing effective coatings that meet the specific criteria of fruits and vegetables, the recent advances in the development of coating technology, the analytical techniques for measuring some important coating functionalities, and future research needs for supporting a broad range of commercial applications.
Organic management can bring many benefits to the farm. One of these is better net income. A major contributing factor to an improved bottom line is the premium that organic commands in most markets. However, as production increases and organic products go mainstream, premiums are likely to decline, and organic farmers are likely to face the same economic pressures as their conventional neighbors. One way to avert this is by adding value to organic crops through on-farm organic processing.
The examples are really endless. Some of the more obvious include converting:
- organic wheat to organic flour
- organic peppers and tomatoes to organic salsa
- organic apples to organic apple cider
- organic okra to organic okra pickles
No doubt, adding a processing enterprise to any farm is a serious undertaking, one that requires sound research and planning. Organic farmers need to jump through the same hoops any other business person would in starting a food business, and at least one more—organic certification.
Farm-Made is intended for the organic farmer, or prospective organic farmer, who is considering adding a processing enterprise and needs to know the additional challenges and requirements that organic certification presents, as well as some of the unique opportunities.
Here we provide an overview of the general requirements for organic certification and for food processing facilities. We follow that with a discussion of four different onfarm enterprises—sorghum syrup, packaged fresh salad greens, table eggs, and canned fruit products (jams, jellies, and preserves). With each, we outline the basic production and processing requirements, and follow with details unique to organic management. A list of resources is provided in each chapter.
The effect of storage time on the quality of ultraviolet-irradiated and thermally pasteurised pineapple juice was evaluated. The juices were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV-C) at wavelength 254 nm (53.42 mJ/cm2, 4.918 s), thermally pasteurised at 80°C for 10 minutes and stored at 4°C for 13 weeks. There were significant changes in the total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and turbidity of UV-irradiated juice during storage, whereas for the same quality attributes of thermally pasteurised juice remained stable throughout the storage time. There were no significant changes in total phenolics for both treatments throughout the storage period. Other quality parameters (ascorbic acid, colour L, hue angle and chroma) were significantly affected by the storage time. Regarding the microbiological analysis, the total plate counts and yeast and mould counts of the UV-irradiated juice increased gradually throughout the 13 weeks of storage while these parameters remained unchanged in the thermally pasteurised juice with almost no microorganism growth. UV-irradiated pineapple juice preserved better quality attributes (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, turbidity, total phenolic, L (lightness), hue angle and chroma) than the thermal pasteurised juice during the storage time. Hence, UV irradiation has great potential as an alternative technology to thermal pasteurisation in producing products of high nutritive values.
Dates can be consumed at three stages: at the fully-ripe stage (khalal), when partially overripe (rutab), and at the fully overripe stage (tamar). Only the latter stage of dry dates i.e., tamar are traditionally stored for future consumption and processing. However, with the introduction of freeze-storage in rural date palm cultivation areas, prolonged storage in freezers has been gaining popularity as it allows for the consumption of all three stages at any time of the year. The effects of prolonged freezestorage on date physical and chemical quality attributes were assessed in this study. Dates were collected at three ripening stages (i.e., khalal, rutab & tamar) from 8-years old date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) grown in northern Oman and subjected to storage at -18°C in a conventional freezer. Fruit quality data were collected at harvest, after 6 months and 10 months of storage. The results showed that prolonged freezing affected fruit physical and chemical quality at different ripening stages. Physical attributes such as flesh and seed weights were reduced during freeze-storage, while percentage of flesh to seed and fruit volume was not affected by freezing. Moreover, storage up to 6 months produced the highest total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and biomass for all ripening stages. Rutab stage maintained high fruit volume, flesh and seed weights during storage. Whereas, tamar stage had the highest total soluble sugars, titratable acidity but the lowest pH, TSS: TA ratio, pectin and biomass. No interaction between ripening stages and storage duration was found in this study. Results suggest that prolonged freeze-storage is a viable alternative that allows for the consumption of dates at three stages of ripening compared to conventional storage of only dry dates.
Infrared (IR) heating provides significant advantages over conventional heating, including reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, absence of solute migration in food material, versatile, simple, and compact equipment, and significant energy saving. Infrared heating can be applied to various food processing operations, namely, drying, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, and sterilization. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. This article reviews aspects of IR heating and presents a theoretical basis for IR heat processing of food materials and the interaction of IR radiation with food components. The effect of IR on food quality attributes is discussed in the context of samples and process parameters. Applications of IR heating in food processing operations and future research potential are also reviewed.
The boiling water bath method of home canning is recommended for processing high-acid foods. The pH is the measurement of how acidic a food is: Foods with a 4.6 pH or less are considered high-acid, and foods with more than a 4.6 pH are considered low-acid.
Boiling water bath canning involves packing jars with food, completely covering the jars with water, heating Techthe water to boiling (212 degrees Fahrenheit (F), 100 degrees Celsius (C)), and processing for 5 to 85 minutes, depending on the food product, style of pack, and jar size. Boiling removes the oxygen remaining in the jar, which helps to form a tight seal between the lid and the rim. The heat used for this method of canning is sufficient to kill vegetative bacterial cells found in the food.
Only high-acid food with a pH of 4.6 or less can be processed using the boiling water bath method. This is because high-acid foods prevent the growth of spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can’t be killed by boiling. Foods with a pH more than 4.6 allow the spores to grow. If spores of C. botulinum are allowed to grow, toxin will form, and consumption of C. botulinum toxin is deadly.
Several tonnes of conventionally consumed dietary fibre−containing fruit components are discarded as wastes in the processing of fruits into fruit juices, resulting in the loss of food nutrients and the increased production of organic waste. A study was done to investigate the processing of pineapple pulp waste from a processing plant, into a powdered product to be used as a dietary fibre supplement. The proximate composition and the functional properties of the raw material and final product were determined. The pasting characteristics or properties of wheat flour fortified with the product up to 20 % were also determined using a viscoamylograph. The wheat flour fortified at 10 % level was used to prepare cookies and muffins after which it was subject to a performance test. Proximate analysis of the product showed crude fibre content of about 30 %; crude protein: 8.5 %; crude fat: 1.5 %; total ash: 5.2 %, and ascorbic acid: 20 mg/100 g. The fat and water absorption capacities were 2.5 g/g and 2.0 g/g of product respectively. The foaming and gelation capacities of the product were found to be 2.8 % and 12 %, respectively. Changes in the pasting characteristics of the whole-wheat flour with the 10% level of fortification were not statistically significant. Acceptance levels of the cookies and muffins made from the composite flour were high and much preference was shown for samples from the fortified flour compared to samples from whole−wheat flour without fortification. This study demonstrated a potential way of harnessing pineapple pulp, a dietary fibre source, which is lost in fruit processing. This will improve the economic value to pineapple, which is widely cultivated in Ghana. It also demonstrated a way of increasing the dietary fibre content of some popular foods to help increase the fibre intake and health of the general population.